Bro do you even internet?

When you live less than fifty miles from Silicon Valley, new technology is a way of life and a conversational staple. The pace of innovation reminds me of the capabilities of the mind and encourages me to keep my wits about me. Be it cloud computing, big data analytics, intelligent marketing, smartphones, tablets, iThis, or iThat, new product launches are a daily occurrence around here (as are the overblown pomp and circumstance that surrounds them). Every company has “the best product” that “no one else has developed yet,” leaving them with “no competition” in some “multibillion dollar market cap” vertical that they “invented in a garage/apartment/park/napkin.” Yada yada yada.


And yet, there is another side of the Bay Area that is far less glorified and talked up in the press and blogosphere, which is every other business around here. For every savvy small business owner swiping your Coin card through their Square mobile device, there are ten who are still leery of anything newer than Windows XP. Sure, “cash only” might be heard in some chic SoMa restaurant as some attempt at “alternative” street cred (I’m looking at you, Garaje.) But you can hear it all the time in small mom and pop shops too, places where slick tech account executives are only seen when getting their hair cut. It seems as though if there is a problem in Silicon Valley that the hyper-intelligent leaders of the tech community should be able to solve handily, it is fear of adoption amongst the population right in their capital. I mean hell, as soon as I’m done writing this I’m going to tape my receipts from last week to blank pieces of 8.5″x11″ paper, fold them neatly into thirds, fit them in an envelope addressed to a PO box, and mail (physically) my expenses. While I’m doing that, I’ll be staring at the (probably expensive) printer/scanner that my company sent me for my home office. Am I missing something here?


Now on the other hand, a good dose of caution when dealing with anyone in tech is usually healthy. The number of times I’ve had a salesperson tell me that there is no competition for me to shop around, or that their product has some ridiculous ROI that is actually cited from a hypothetical study that their own company self-published is equal to the number of tech salespeople I’ve spoken to. As soon as I told someone I had a marketing budget they all came a-callin’. Yet once you wade past the front lines of pseudoinformation and find out what is really out there and how you can accelerate your company in so many ways… well, let’s just say mind = blown.


So how can we help mom and pop overcome their fear and get with the times, especially now when the economy is so fragile and jobs are so scarce that not doing smart business is not an option? It seems that having some sort of platform through which local businesses of varying sizes and types of sales points could critique business services they use would be awesome, something similar to Yelp but where the business you’re searching isn’t location-based. I met a company doing something similar at Dreamforce a few weeks ago, although they still seemed a long way off from providing the kind of information one would need to make an informed business decision. Hopefully I’ll see more of them around.


In the mean time, though, I’m still going to be staring at all these damned ATM charges I get every time I walk into some shop and find out after I’m checking out that the piece of plastic in my pocket that’s been around for decades doesn’t jive there. Full disclosure: I wouldn’t have ever wrote this little rant if I hadn’t had to look at my bank statements to make sure I had taped all the right receipts to my expense report this week.

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Frederic Rzewski’s “Coming Together”

Almost two years ago I started working on my senior thesis, “Sociopolitical Communication in the 20th Century Western Art Music Tradition.” One of the many parts of the final product was an analysis of Frederic Rzewski’s “Coming Together”, a 20-minute structured improvisation about the death of Sam Melville in the Attica Prison Riots. As difficult as it was to perform, perhaps more difficult was discovering the mathematical formulas and processes that Rzewski utilized to compose the bass, the only composed line which dictates the improvisations of all other performers. It was a huge a-ha moment for me, and to this day I have yet to see anyone post it online. I don’t really foresee it going through the peer-review process any time soon, so I thought I would share it here for any aspiring theoreticians trying to crack Fred’s code, or performers looking for another way of approaching the piece (it helps a ton!) Enjoy:

P.S. Would have nitpicked the formatting, but you’ll live! I’ll fix it another time.


Frederic Rzewski’s Coming Together is a setting of an excerpt from the personal

correspondence of Sam Melville, an inmate at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica,

New York. Melville was one of the leaders of the infamous Attica Prison riot which

occurred earlier in 1971.43 Rzewski’s composition attempts to portray the graduak

unification of the inmates around a common goal within the confines of the prison. In

order to convey the stasis of the penitentiary environment, Rzewski restricts himself to a

mere seven notes (G1, Bb1, C2, D2, F2, G2, and Bb2), arranged in a continuous stream of

16th notes in common time. This gamut is then subjected to a series of algorithmic

processes which create a heavily syncopated melody in the bass register, echoing the

ordered chaos of prison life. This melody represents the common goal of the performers

acting as the inmates, who must then follow a series of instructions which actualize a

coming together around the bass melody. The instructions are generally improvisatory in

nature, directing performers to select notes from the bass melody to be played at the same

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43 Leslie James Pickering, Mad Bomber Melville: Part One, Artvoice, 6 June 2007, <

issues/v6n23/mad_bomber_melville_part_one>, accessed March 2012.

time as they occur in the instrument realizing said melody. These selections increase in

frequency and intensity, culminating with all performers playing every note of the original

melody in unison. The overall aural effect of the performance is one of a melody

composed of constantly shifting timbres, initially individualized but increasingly blended.

Rzewski’s additive processes are most easily comprehended if ordinal positions are

assigned to the notes of the gamut, from low to high: G1 = [1], Bb1 = [2], C2 = [3], D2 =

[4], F2 = [5], G2 = [6], and Bb2 = [7] (ordinal positions are placed within brackets to

avoid confusion). Each section has a target melody consisting of a series of rising or falling

lines which move sequentially through the gamut; the direction and sequential size of

these lines vary from section to section, although every melody is 28 notes total. Rzewski

then creates phrases which grow consecutively longer by adding notes toward the target

melody of the given section. For example, section A’s target melody is the sequence [1|12|

123|1234|12345|123456|1234567], where bars indicate rising or falling lines (fragments)

and brackets indicate phrases. Rzewski then creates phrases of increasing length by adding

notes from the sequence one by one: [1] [1|1] [1|12] [1|12|1] [1|12|12] [1|12|123] etc.

Section B’s target melody is [1234567|123456|12345|1234|123|12|1], and is constructed

in the same manner – [1] [12] [123] [1234] [12345] [123456] [1234567] [1234567|1] etc.

One could explain sections C-H in a similar manner by finding their target melodies and

the sequencing thereof, but there is an additional layer of complex rationality to Rzewski’s


C is a retrograde of B,

D is an inversion of B,

E is an inversion of C and the retrograde inversion of B,

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F is a retrograde inversion of A,

G is an inversion of A,

H is a retrograde of A.

Thus sections C-H are a mirror image of process, which helps the piece feel organic

and creates development. Starting with A and B as the original themes, they are both

treated to increasing levels of variation before gradually returning. The piece ends exactly

how it started, but in reverse – perhaps a very potent metaphor for the life of Sam Melville

and the other participants in the Attica riots.

Since the algorithmic procedure of each section takes place at the same point of

melodic construction or destruction – the last note for the additive processes, the first note

for the subtractive – there are many ways to interpret the sections’ relationship to one

another. For instance, one interpretation might relate every section to A. If the order of

melodic fragments is considered, section B is a fragment retrograde of section A. In this


C is a retrograde of the retrograde of the fragment order of A,

D is an inversion of the fragment order of A,

E is an inversion of C and the retrograde inversion of the fragment order of A,

F is a retrograde inversion of A,

G is an inversion of A,

H is a retrograde of A.

Each section consists, at its most basic level, of all consecutive constructions of a sevennote

gamut at a constant rhythmic value. All ordinal intervals (meaning the distance from

one note to the next within a fragment as a measurement of position in the scale rather

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than intervallic relationships) are static at 1 within fragments, and each pair of fragments

will have equivalent ordinal intervals in every other section (leaps of every real number

0-7). Because of these mathematical consistencies between sections, how one decides to

analyze Coming Together is relative. At the most abstract, sections do not need to be

considered relative to each other, since each operates as one permutation of the system

described above. This in itself might be Rzewski’s ultimate message: each section, each

note, and each performer is ultimately one permutation of a collective process, either

musically or in a broadly human sense. The intertwining of its individual parts affects a

greater whole operating in harmony, each member of which plays an equally important

part. No one note or performer has more importance than another in the composition and

performance of the work.

An aside: because the additive and subtractive process are themselves essentially

mirror images, with the additive affecting the last note of the phrase and the subtractive the

first, any inversion or retrograde of any section can be considered as an independent

function and written out like section A is above. From experience performing the piece,

this is actually recommended so that the performer can pick up the pattern instead of

trying to remember the retrograde inversion of a previous section. Being able to see the

pattern unfolding is invaluable in the improvisational sections and is immeasurably useful

when approaching a page turn or finding one’s place. Contextualizing C-H against

sections A and B allows for a discussion that is at once detailed and succinct without overcomplicating

or over-simplifying Rzewski’s constructions.

The text itself – eight lines from one of Sam Melville’s letters to his brother written

during the riot – is incarcerated into fragments seven units in length, mirroring the number

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of pitches in the gamut.44 The sentences are then subjected to a simplified version of the

additive process selecting the order of pitches: the first sentence is sounded, then the first

and second, followed by the first, second, and third, and so on until all eight sentences

have been heard. Once that goal has been reached, the first sentence is removed so that

the text starts on the second and continues to the eighth fragment. The second sentence is

then removed as the remainder are recited, then the third, and so on. Rzewski also

employs word painting techniques throughout the piece to further the unification process

and musically express the emotionality involved in the procedure. As section B comes to a

close, the text “there are doubtless subtle surprises ahead, but I feel secure and ready” is

recited. As the corresponding measures pass, Rzewski increases the overall dynamic level

by saturating the melody with accent marks. When section C begins, the dynamic

indication drops to subito piano – a subtle musical surprise to echo the textual one. The

first appearance of the fragments “as lovers / will contrast” accompanies this softening of

texture. As section F nears and the performers diminish in volume, the speaker tells the

audience that he is “feeling for the inevitable direction of my life.” The musicians then

offer direction playing subito forte, as if inspired with a new sense of purpose. Then, as F

nears completion, the final reprise of the phrase “there are doubtless subtle surprises

ahead, but I feel secure and ready” is recited. This time, instead of presenting a surprise,

Rzewski’s ensemble realizes security and readiness, crescendoing triple forte into the now

confident “as lovers” fragment. As the piece ends, the speaker once more repeats that s/he

is “feeling for the inevitable direction of my life.” The direction comes in the form of a

musical gunshot. The piece ends abruptly as every member of the ensemble plays five low

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44 For full correspondences from Mr. Melville, see: Samuel Melville, Letters From Attica, Morrow, (New York,

1972). See appendix A for the full text, sentence order, and fragmentation.

Gs as loudly as possible before cutting off without any ritardando or diminuendo as a

warning. This can be interpreted as the moment of Melville’s death from the bullet of a

National Guard sniper as Melville was walking through the courtyard of the penitentiary

after the armed forces had seized the building by force.

Part two, “Attica,” follows, floating on a constant Bb major triad, the relative major

of “Coming Together.” The melody is again additive and performers are instructed to either

drone on a Bb major tonality, play the melody, harmonize the melody at the third or sixth,

or improvise freely around the melody. The vocalist repeats the text, “Attica is in front of

me,” a quote spoken by Melville’s fellow inmate Richard X. Clark when asked how it felt

to put Attica behind him.45 This text is also additive, this time being constructed word by

word rather than sentence by sentence. The choice of this quote highlights the peculiar

duality pervasive throughout both parts of Coming Together. The speaker, who only a

moment before was Sam Melville in the moments before his death, is now Clark, leaving

the scene of a terrible ordeal. If “Coming Together” is representative of Melville’s role in

the riot itself, “Attica” may be the musical sonification of the aftermath of his death.

Christian Apslund makes several other insightful observations about the duality of the

work: “Attica, seen in this light has been a laboratory, a monastery and a school; a

preparing ground for a greater struggle in the world outside Attica.”

Coming Together was initially met with a mixed initial critical response. Some

questioned Rzewski’s use of a relatively simplistic G minor pentatonic scale in a time

where experimentalism and serialism had sidelined tonality. Others questioned the

incessant rhythm of the bass line. However, the sociopolitical messaging in Coming

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45 Christian Apslund, “Frederic Rzewski and Spontaneous Political Music,” Perspectives of New Music, 33,

(Winter/Summer, 1995), 418.

Together combined with the test of time has many who initially dismissed the work to

acknowledge its artistry. As critic John Rockwell commented, “everything considered, he

raises so many issues that the fact that his actual music is only intermittently interesting

becomes almost secondary.”46

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Why not?

It has become increasingly clear in recent years that blogs and the people who write them are defining our culture and history just as much, if not more, than traditional sociological indicators such as news and books. Notable historical events and groups such as national elections, the Tea Party movement, the Arab Spring, and increasingly brave Chinese dissent would have been radically different or nonexistent without the armchair (or mid-protest) author. 

Here you’ll find what contributions I may think up. Any requests are welcome and encouraged!

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